Metal evaporation is one of the most common methods of applying die back metallization and under bump metallurgy for flip chip applications. This technology is well established, more cost-effective than sputtering and also allows for higher throughput. Honeywell Electronic Materials manufactures a wide variety of evaporation materials. Al, Al alloys, Ag, Au, Au alloys, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, and Zn are available as wire, rods, slugs, pellets, or supercharges. The vapor pressure as a function of temperature is plotted in the figure below for these elements.